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PACS worked in 16 districts in Bihar with 15 Civil Society Organisation (CSO) partners and 18 network partners. PACS projects covered 116 blocks, 4012 villages and reached 2,254,454 people.

Map of PACS districts in Bihar

Impact: overall

  • 2887 Community Based Organisations (CBOs) were formed or re-formed. 92% of the CBOs were led by socially excluded groups. Membership of these CBOs totalled 45,209 people, 94% of whom were from socially excluded groups. 
  • 3064 training and sensitisation events were conducted and, through these, 155,316 individuals (including CSO staff, service providers, CBO members and community members) were trained.
  • 235 discrimination cases were identified, and 226 discrimination cases were addressed.
  • 423 Right to Information (RTI) applications were submitted.
  • 804 advocacy meetings with government officials were held, along with another 195 advocacy meetings with other stakeholders.
  • 161 recommendations were made to remove barriers and constraints in service delivery.
  • 119 social audits and public hearings were organised involving 32,661 participants from 1587 villages.

Impact: by theme


  • 156,510 people were supported to apply for MGNREGA work and 91,375 people received MGNREGA work.
  • PACS institutionalised MGNREGA social audits in the government system. As a result, 200 social audits covering 200 panchayats in 38 districts were conducted under a joint campaign between the State Rural Development Department and PACS CSOs.
  • The PACS MGNREGA Intensive Participatory Planning Exercise was institutionalised, ensuring ownership of socially excluded groups for identification of work and budgeting. 
  • 1008 women were trained as MGNREGA “Mates” (site supervisors), a role traditionally performed by men. With consistent PACS advocacy, the Bihar government issued a notification mandating that at least 50% of “Mates” should be women.
  • PACS launched the Akhil Bhartiya MGNREGA Mazdoor Union (ABMMU) with more than 3000 CBOs representing 60,000 MGNREGA workers in Bihar. Its members are spread across 12 blocks in 8 districts.

Land and Forest Rights

  • 278 Individual Forest Rights and 180 Community Forest Rights were applied for through a first-of-its-kind State Core Committee for monitoring and implementation of the Forest Rights Act. The formation of this committee was influenced by PACS and consists of CSO members and government functionaries.
  • 18,272 homestead land claims were applied for, of which 10,009 homestead land claims were received.
  • 167 agricultural land claims were applied for and 40 were received.

Health and Nutrition

  • 500 Anganwadi (ICDS) centres were supported function more effectively.
  • 22,561 institutional deliveries were facilitated and 18,018 women were supported to receive full benefits under the JSY maternal health scheme.
  • 450 RSBY Mitras were trained to provide community-level support on the RSBY health insurance scheme.


  • 1000 School Management Committees were formed and, under the Behtar Shiksha Haq Abhiyan (Right to Quality Education Campaign) supported by PACS, 1212 members from socially excluded groups were elected onto these committees to reduce discrimination within school premises.
  • Mid-Day Meals were monitored and regularised in 550 schools.

Livelihoods and Skills

  • 655 young people from socially excluded groups were trained in vocational employment skills under the PACS programme and 522 of the students were placed in jobs.

Impact: photo gallery

Find more Bihar case studies and resources on the PACS Learning Zone.

Lessons learnt

  • CSOs can lead the social inclusion agenda provided they are given appropriate tools and support. They can also play a catalytic role in improving the performance of social security schemes and ensuring their benefits reach socially excluded groups.
  • CBOs are effective instruments in leading social change at the community level. They provide platforms for socially excluded groups to voice their rights and entitlements.
  • Evidence-based advocacy/engagement makes service providers responsive and accountable.

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